#F1 History: Spanish Grand Prix 1986 – Jerez

Brought to you by TheJudge13 contributor Jennie Mowbray

Editors note: Jennie is a new F1 fan and have only recently started following the sport. The history of the sport fascinates her and she will be contributing to TJ13 going forward.

‘There is nothing new under the sun. It has all been done before.’

Sherlock Holmes – A Study in Scarlett

Turbo 1.5 litre engines were mandatory, fuel allowances had been decreased and tyres were degrading.  However, it wasn’t 2014 but 1986!

The Formula One cars of 1986 were the most powerful cars ever raced in F1.  There were no limits to engine power and the Williams-Honda FW11 Turbo could produce 1400 hp at 12,000 rpm during qualifying. In fact, the engines were so powerful that they weren’t even able to accurately measure how much power they had at the time as the available technology wasn’t advanced enough. Normally aspirated engines were banned for the first time. This wouldn’t happen again until the 2014 season. Fuel allowances had also been decreased from 220 litres per race down to 195 litres and fuel saving had a major role in team strategy decisions during many of the races.

Jerez Turn 1One of the new circuits for 1986 was Jerez.  It had only been finished on December 8 the previous year and on April 13 it hosted its first F1 race.   It went on to host seven Formula One Grand Prix with the last one being in 1997.  Its first race in 1986 was memorable in several ways, one of which was the great lack of spectators in attendance. The anticipated 100,000 spectators never eventuated and the stands were almost empty. This was thought to be due to a combination of the high price of the tickets, the isolation of the track and the lack of publicity for the race. It didn’t help that there were no Spanish F1 drivers racing at the time.

1986 had not started well for Williams.  Only a few weeks before the start of the season Frank Williams had sustained a spinal cord injury when he rolled his rental car driving from the Paul Ricard Circuit to the airport after pre-season testing. He would spend most of the year in hospital.

Senna in the Lotus qualified on pole setting a time of 1.21.605 with Piquet and Mansell behind him in their Williams-Honda’s almost a second slower.  In the previous race at Brazil Mansell had spun off the track after contact with Senna early on the first lap so there was no love lost between the two drivers at Portugal. Both Senna and Mansell had won two races the season before in 1985 and they were both keen for more race wins.  Neither was inclined to give way to the other in a head to head battle.

Senna led the sprint uphill into the tight right-hand bend at the end of the short straight and although Mansell was initially third he was passed first by Keke Rosberg, and then a few laps later by the reigning world champion Alain Prost, both in McLarens.  Jerez was a very difficult circuit to pass on with the only passing place for evenly matched cars being at the end of the main straight into Turn 1.

After the action of the first few laps the cars settled into position until lap 18 with Senna in the lead maintaining a small gap of between 1-2 seconds to Prost behind him.  However, Mansell started to catch and then pass the cars in front of him.  He first passed Prost on lap 19 and then proceeded to reel in Rosberg.  The first five cars were still very close with less than 4 seconds between them.  Senna was setting the pace which was based on his fuel consumption and tyre wear rather than on the speed of the car.

Michele Alboretto, driving a Ferrari, was the first to pit on lap 24, with his team mate Rene Arnoux pitting on the following lap. This was a surprise as at the beginning of the race it was anticipated that few cars would need to pit for tyres as they were predicted to last the whole race.  Most of the front runners were using hard compound Goodyear tyres and were not expected to need to pit to change tyres as the track was fairly un-abrasive.

Jerez - Senna_MansellMansell passed Rosberg going down the main straight at the beginning of Lap 30 and was now in third.  The top five were still covered by a gap of less than six seconds, with Piquet 2.5 seconds behind Senna.  It only took a couple of laps for Mansell to catch Piquet and he passed him going into the first corner of lap 33.  Mansell quickly pulled away from Piquet and lost no time catching up to Senna, passing him on lap 39 on the inside of Turn 1 (obviously the place to sit to see all the race action!) Piquet shortly afterwards pulled up in a cloud of smoke with an engine failure.

Mansell then started to pull away from Senna and within a few laps had a four second gap with the first five drivers now covered by eight seconds.  However, by lap 52 Senna was gaining time back on Mansell who was now struggling with tyre wear bought on by his earlier charge through the field.

By lap 55 Senna was all over the back of Mansell’s car trying to find a way to get past him.  He had to be careful as Mansell was not inclined to give way without a fight.  On lap 59 Senna tried to pass going around the outside into Turn 1 but locked up his tyres as Mansell easily held him off.  He tried again later in the lap and ended up on the grass when Mansell shut the door on him.  The pressure and speed of the second half of the race meant that both their tyres were now becoming marginal and were becoming the key factor in determining the outcome of the race.

Lap 61 started with Mansell still battling to hold Senna off but his tyres were rapidly losing grip.  Prost was hanging on behind ready to take the lead if they took each other out.  The gap between first and third was only 0.7 seconds.  Senna finally got past on Lap 63 with Prost following directly behind him to take second as Mansell lost momentum while coming out of the corner after being passed by Senna.

From Lap 55 the Williams mechanics had been out in pit line ready for a pit stop if necessary and immediately after Senna passed him, Mansell came into the pits for new tyres. By this time Rosberg who was in fourth had already been lapped so Mansell came out of the pits in third and 19 seconds behind Senna with nine short laps to try to catch him. Of course, he would still need to overtake him even if he did manage to catch him!

Mansell, with his fresh tyres, then proceeded to lap 3-4 seconds faster than Senna for several laps, setting several fastest laps in the process. He caught up to Prost by Lap 69 and tried to pass him going into Turn 1 but wasn’t quite close enough to get through and then got stuck behind him going through the following fast corners which gave him no way to get past.  He finally passed him at Turn 12 and pulled away from him very quickly. He was now seven seconds behind Senna with three laps to go.  This had dropped to 5.2 seconds by the next lap. During lap 71 Senna got caught up by backmarkers and going onto the main straight at the beginning of the last lap Mansell was 1.5 seconds behind him. By now Senna was on the edge with his own rapidly degrading tyres. He was fish-tailing coming out of corners and ran wide up onto the curbing, desperately trying to hold off Mansell.

By the final hairpin Mansell was right on his tail and they then went side by side down the main straight, going over the finish line with Senna less than a car length ahead and pipping Mansell to the win by 0.014 seconds, one of the closest ever GP finishes. Prost came third over 20 seconds behind them!


After the race Mansell joked that the race was so close they should have been given 7.5 points each.  Prost also apologised to Mansell because he didn’t think Mansell had any hope of catching Senna and so was racing for position.  If he had known than Mansell was going to catch Senna he would have let him through more easily. Prost and Rosberg both had thought they were running short of fuel during the race and so had been in fuel saving mode but found out later that it was due to faulty readings in their cockpit.

It is interesting that some of the comments written at the time about this race were that it was boring because of the need to conserve fuel and tyres and how that impacted on strategy.  However, because of the different strategies with pit stops and tyres during the race, there was potential for three different race winners. Commentators Murray Walker and James Hunt were definitely not bored!  I’m sure it’s because of races like this with close battles for the win that modern F1 started playing around with degrading tyres and DRS.

Because of its remote location Jerez struggled to get significant numbers of spectators (sounds a bit like Korea today) and in 1992 the Spanish GP moved to Barcelona.  Currently Jerez used for F1 winter testing and some estimate that more people now attend testing than used to attend the race!  It does help that there is now a Spanish driver and so the local crowds turn out en-mass to watch Fernando Alonso drive his Ferrari.

Video of 1986 Spanish GP Jerez Nigel Mansell vs. Ayrton Senna

15 responses to “#F1 History: Spanish Grand Prix 1986 – Jerez

  1. A well written first article. I remember watching the race live.

    Though technically one of thing stand out.: “the engines were so powerful that they weren’t even able to accurately measure how much power they had at the time as the available technology wasn’t advanced enough.”

    That was mostly due to the temperature that the toluene fuel was at when injected into the engine. Honda found that they could heat the fuel by routing the fuel lines around the exhaust, only to discover that fluctuations in the exhaust temps could increase or decrease HP by a range of 50 -100 HP. I remember seeing most of the cars fuelled at the Canadian GP that year by mechanics wearing Haz-Mat suits as the fuel was dangerous to breath or get on one’s skin. I would love to read an in-depth technical analysis of both the Honda and BMW tirbo’s of that era.

    • That was a very interesting piece, thanks Jennie…..

      Cav that fluctuation in the h.p. is incredible, hadn’t heard of that previously. Nasty stuff though.

      As soon as I saw Jennie’s opening I figured we could see some debate on Honda v BMW turbos. Like you, would love to see something meaningful.

      • The BMW story is probably more interesting than the Honda one due to the fact that it was BASF, and not an oil company, that formulated the fuel that BMW used and once BMW started using the BASF toluene fuel the HP numbers went through the roof. When BMW used standard 102 RON pump fuel, Paul Rosche who designed the engine, thought it wasn’t up to much.

        • Not really that surprising though since BASF had previously produced synthetic fuels.

          They had a lot more experience than organic based oil companies.

      • Toluene can be used as an octane booster in gasoline fuels used in internal combustion engines.

        Toluene at 86% by volume fueled all the turbo Formula 1 teams in the 1980s, first pioneered by the Honda team.

        The remaining 14% was a “filler” of n-heptane, to reduce the octane to meet Formula 1 fuel restrictions. Toluene at 100% can be used as a fuel for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines; however, due to the density of the fuel and other factors, the fuel does not vaporize easily unless preheated to 70 degrees Celsius.

        As Cav said – Honda accomplished this in their Formula 1 cars by routing the fuel lines through the exhaust system to heat the fuel.

  2. Love your opening illustrative quote from Holmes… “‘There is nothing new under the sun. It has all been done before.’”

    Thank you very much Ms. Mowbray for bringing this bit of history back to our attention. Very relevant, and well done too!

  3. ” Because of its remote location Jerez struggled to get significant numbers of spectators …. ”

    Not remote enough for 125,000 motorcycling fans to attend the circuit every year though !

    Shows the difference in attitude the Spanish have between F1 and Moto GP.

    Spain hosts 4 Moto GP races each year – all are sell outs.

    Even with Alonso they can’t sell out an F1 race.

  4. Great read! As a newcomer to the sport also, I love hearing about F1 history. Looking forward to the next

  5. I did write a comment as soon as I read this great article, but alas, it was the wee small hours and I somehow missed pressing send! (woke up with phone in hand still)

    That mid 80’s early 90’s period is the era I fell in love with F1, born in 1976 I was just 9 when this race aired and the sight of Manssel in the Williams and Senna in the Lotus just, stirs some deep and almost forgotten emotions.

    Great writting Jennie, I’m hoping to submit an piece of my own to the Judge in the not to distant future, just need some spare time!

  6. Thanks everyone for your kind words about my writing and your interesting comments about the race and the engines:)

    My husband also loved this era of F1 – he started watching in 1983. If only I hadn’t spent 25 years falling asleep after the first 5 laps think how much I’d know about it now! I had been going out with him for a month when this race was on. The races were delayed in Australia and often didn’t start until close to midnight so if you weren’t a night owl you had to be keen. Thank goodness for u-tube so now I can try to catch up.

    Jennie (aka taflach)

  7. Pingback: #F1 History: Montjuic – 27th April 1975 | thejudge13·

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